Percentage problems are a fundamental part of grade 5 maths that every student should master. These problems often appear in real-life scenarios such as shopping, banking, and everyday calculations, making them an essential skill to acquire. In this article, we will explore the 5 most common types of percentage problem sums that you may encounter. By mastering these questions, students can confidently tackle percentage word problems, and apply these skills in practical situations.

Let’s dive into the five most common types of percentage problems with answers that every student should aim to conquer.

__1. Finding the Percentage of a Quantity__

__1. Finding the Percentage of a Quantity__

This is perhaps the most straightforward and common percentage word problem. It involves finding a specific percentage of a given quantity. Whether figuring out the percentage of students in a class or determining how much of a product is sold, this type of problem is essential in percentage maths problems.

**Example: Percentage of Students in a Hall**

A typical grade 5 percentage word problem might look like this:

*There were 300 students in the hall. 35% of them were girls. How many boys were there?*

**Solution:**

**Tip:**

Always remember that the word “of” in percentage word problems means multiplication.

__2. Percentage with Remainders__

__2. Percentage with Remainders__

Many percentage problems with solutions involve calculating a percentage and then using that result to solve further. For example, calculating the number of men, women, and children in a population requires breaking down percentages step by step.

**Example: People at a Swimming Complex**

*There are 160 people at a swimming complex. 30% of the people are men, 50% of the remaining people are women, and the rest are children. How many children are there?*

**Solution:**

**Tip:**

Find the number of remaining people first. Then, find 50% of the remaining people.

Remaining people here refers to women and children.

Common mistake is thinking that children is 50% and women = 100% - 50% - 30% = 20%

__3. GST (Goods and Services Tax)__

__3. GST (Goods and Services Tax)__

In many countries, including Singapore, percentage word problems frequently involve calculating Goods and Services Tax (GST). This tax is a percentage of the price of goods or services, and students must be able to calculate the total cost after adding the tax.

Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a tax imposed on goods and services.

Singapore’s GST has been 7% since July 2007. It has increased to 8% in January 2023, and has further increased to 9% in January 2024.

**Example: Buying a Cabinet with GST**

*Regina bought a cabinet that included 9% GST. The cost of the cabinet before GST was $699. How much did Regina pay in total?*

**Solution:**

**Tip:**

GST is an additional cost, so always add it to the original price to find the total.

__4. Simple Interest__

__4. Simple Interest__

Simple interest is another common percentage word problem that involves calculating the extra amount of money earned or owed based on a fixed interest rate. These questions are frequently seen in banking, where students are required to calculate interest on savings or loans.

**Example: Earning Interest on Savings**

*Helen deposits $3486 in her savings account for a year. She earns 2.5% interest annually. How much will she have in her savings account at the end of one year?*

**Solution:**

**Tip:**

Interest is an **additional amount** on top of the **original deposit**.

__5. Calculating Discounts__

__5. Calculating Discounts__

Discounts are another essential real-life application of percentages, frequently encountered in shopping scenarios. Students need to know how to find the final price after a discount is applied, which is often included in percentage word problems with solutions for grade 5.

**Example: Buying a Saxophone on Sale**

*A saxophone originally cost $1980. Kenny bought the saxophone at a 60% discount. How much did Kenny pay for the saxophone?*

**Solution:**

**Tip:**

A discount is a reduction, so always subtract it from the original price.

**Tips for Conquering Percentage Problems**

Mastering percentage problems involves learning the different types of sums and practising frequently. Here are a few additional tips:

Convert fractions to percentages: Many percentage word problems involve converting a fraction to a percentage and vice versa.

Practice percentage worksheets: Regular practice with percentage worksheets and real-life scenarios will help in solving problems quickly.

Understand the per cent symbol: Knowing how the per cent symbol (%) works and its relationship with fractions and decimals is crucial.

Break down the problem: For complex percentage word problems that involve multiple steps, break down the question into smaller, more manageable parts.

In conclusion, percentage problems are an essential aspect of maths, especially in grade 5. By mastering these 5 common types of percentage problems, students can improve their problem-solving skills, making percentage maths problems easier to handle in both academic and real-life situations.

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